10.5. Applying Anatomy


Breast carcinoma
This is often a ‘ductal carcinoma in situ’ (DCIS). During the progression of this disease, cells grow uncontrollably from the epithelial lining of the lactiferous ducts in the breast. This carcinoma can metastasise to other regions of the body: part of the original tumour breaks off and enters the lymphatic circulation. The lymph fluid passes through the axillary nodes in the armpit and a trace of the tumour is often left here, so a biopsy may be taken of an axillary lymph node. Surgery may also be required. This can involve the removal of the glandular and fibrous tissue, as well as pec major, pec minor and the axillary group of nodes, to ensure the complete removal of the carcinoma.

Polymastia and polythelia
Polymastia - extra breast(s). Polythelia – extra nipple(s). These can occur in males and females. The extra structures usually lie somewhere along a line extending from the axilla to the pelvis.

Hypertrophy of the male breast after puberty. Usually due to an imbalance of oestrogenic and androgenic hormones. Steroid abuse can also lead to gynaecomastia.